Surah: 017 Al-Isra
This is Makki Surah, except for some verses believed to be of Madni origin. The surah begins by confirming the night journey of the Prophet ﷺ from Makkah to Masjidul Aqsa in Jerusalem, and the subsequent ascension to the heavens – all in a single night, which was being ridiculed by the Quraysh. Hence this surah is named Al Isra’, the Night Journey. It is also known by the name of Bani Israel, since the history of the Children of Israel who populated Jerusalem, is narrated at the beginning.
Allaah (SWT) states that the elites in any town are followed, and so they are directed to do go and establish justice, but when they fail to do so, they are destroyed, as were many nations from the time of Nuh (AS). In the first half of the surah, Allaah (SWT) emphasizes on certain moral practices, such as kindness to parents, spending generously on those in need, keeping away from adultery and unlawful murder etc.
To the incessant questioning about resurrection, Allaah (SWT) responds that whatever form they may be in, Allaah (SWT) can resurrect them. Narrating the creation of Adam (AS), it is stated that Iblees sought respite until the Day of Reckoning and challenged to misguide the Children of Adam, to which Allaah (SWT) permitted him but said that His faithful servants would not be influenced him.
The disbelievers kept demanding for a miracle, often dictating what exactly they wanted to witness, but they are told that the revelation of the Qur’an is the miracle that they should reflect over, which no one can reproduce.
As the surah began with speaking about the Children of Israel, it concludes by mentioning the nine miracles Allaah (SWT) granted Musa (AS) against the Firawn and saved the Children of Israel from the persecution they faced under the latter.