Surah: 022 Al-Hajj
This is a Madni surah, and the only surah named after one of the pillars of Islam, the Hajj.
The surah begins with describing the difficulties of the Day of Resurrection and asks those who doubt it to reflect over their own creation as evidence to the impending return to life after death.
Different kinds of people are described. Firstly, those who argue and deny Allaah (SWT) and will be consequently punished for their disbelief. Secondly, those who worship Allaah (SWT) as long as it is easy but turn away when they find any hardship in submitting to His religion. These will be at a loss as well and will face humiliation in the Hereafter. Finally, the believers who were sincere and committed to the religion will be rewarded with gardens under which rivers flow.
Allaah (SWT) appointed Ibrahim (AS) to build the Kabah and establish it as a place of worship for the believers, especially to perform the Hajj at least once in their lives. The sacrifice of animals that is offered in the days of Hajj, commemorating Ibrahim’s (AS) willingness to sacrifice his son, should be done with gratitude and devotion to Allaah (SWT).
The believers who were cast out from their homes for believing in Tawheed were permitted to fight those who wronged them. And the Prophet ﷺ is comforted by the fact that all previous prophets were rejected, and so this is not a new development. So the people must reflect at the ruins of past nations that were destroyed as a consequence of their disbelief.
Anyone who emigrates for the sake of Allaah (SWT) but death overtakes him, then he is sure to be rewarded for his efforts and will earn his place in Paradise.
Dismissing the case for polytheism, Allaah (SWT) says to the disbelievers that those who they worship are even incapable of creating a fly, and so they have failed to appreciate the abilities and power of Allaah (SWT).
The religion of Islam is essentially the same that was revealed upon Ibrahim (AS), and the followers of this religion have been named by Allaah (SWT) as Muslims.